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Abstract


The Political in Heritage Taken Over by Republic: II. Constitutionalism
The period of II. Constitutional Monarchy is one of the most important turning points in the history of Ottoman modernization, but it can also be considered as the end of the traditional Ottoman administration. The II. Constitutional Monarchy is one of the important parameters in the history of modern Turkey and is also the transition period to the Republic administration. In the 19th century, a new understanding was formed, thinks that the classical management understanding of the Ottoman Empire could not produce solutions against the problems experienced by the state and even caused it. The representatives of this understanding, which defends the representational government model in the West, have become actors of a power-opposition struggle. The representatives of this opposition movement, called themselves as Young Ottomans, demanded that the powers of the absolute monarchy be restricted and shared in favor of the people, unlike the internal conflicts experienced before in the Ottoman Empire. The necessary tools such as election and parliament were seen by the opposition as the guarantee of liberation, even partially, to reflect the will of the people to the administration. The cadres who founded the Republic witnessed many arrangements that came to life with the II. Constitution. In this study, the historical process that led to the proclamation of the Constitutional Monarchy led by the Young Ottomans is handled, on the other hand, the reflection of the change and transformation in the Ottoman Empire in the political, administrative, social, educational and economic fields to those who built the Republic is explained. In this study, the historical process that led to the proclamation of the concept of constitutional rule led by The Young Ottomans, the reflection of the change and transformation in the political, administrative, social, educational and economic fields of the Ottoman Empire on those who built the Republican regime was explained. Besides, the intellectual grounds of the revolutions of the republican cadres who witnessed the political struggle for the declaration of the II. Constitutional Monarchy were discussed within this framework.

Keywords
II. Constitutionalism, Mebusan Assembly, Parliament, Election, Republic's squad.



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