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Abstract


An Independence War in Anatolia: Karamanaids-Mongols Struggles
Since XII. century, Mongols started an invasion movement to Transoxiana/Maveraünnehir and Khorasan/Horasan geographies where Turks live intensively. These invasions caused immigration of intense Turkmens population towards Anatolia. In 3rd July 1243 Battle of Kose Dagh, Mongols dominance process on geography of Anatolia started because of defeat of Turkey Seljuks State face to Mongols. In this period, Mongols fought especially with Turkmens. Because, also some of Seljuk high state officials set to violence against other Turkmen Seigniories especially Karamanids for the purpose of generating profit from Mongols’ Khan and their governor and Noyans on Anatolia. Turkmen Seigniory has no chance than acting together on Anatolia because of policies applied by both Mongols and Seljuks State. Thus, Turkmen forces who act under Karamanids put Mongols forces in difficult situation in time. Because of violence policies applied by Mongols on Anatolia, Karamanids always rebelled, and tried every opportunity to conquer Konya. Karamanids Seigniories, took place of Seljuk State which let Mongol’s occupations and slaughters pass unchallenged in time, and has seen themselves as the heir of Seljuks’ from 1308 by becoming advocate of Anatolian Turks. Karamanids who acted like this and became strong seigniory where Mongols’ Noyans consulted announced their independence by conquering Konya last time in the period of Mahmut Bey. All the Beyliks in the Anatolian geography declared their dominance in their own regions of influence and full independent Anatolian Beyliks emerged after death of ruler of Ilkhanate Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan in 1335. In this study, the struggle between Karamanids, who got into strong struggle for domination after Turkey Seljuk State’s enter into the process of disintegration, and Mongols, and place will be given to Anatolian struggles in this axis.

Keywords
Mongols, Turkey Seljuks, Karamanaıds, Noyan, Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey, Güneri Bey.



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