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Limits of Women’s Liberation in Fatma Aliye Hanim’s Udî: Women Working 'Within The Moral Boundaries’ and ‘The Others’
Fatma Aliye Hanım (1862-1936) who is considered as the first woman novelist of Turkish literature wrote novels on the woman question on the basis of modernization movements in the Ottoman State. Her novels Muhadarat (1892), Refet (1898), Udî (1899), Levayih-i Hayat (1899), and Enin (1910) were published chronologically. It is seen that in the studies on Fatma Aliye Hanim's works researchers have interpreted author's novels in the context of women’s participation in social and business life, women’s education, marriage, polygamy, and divorce. The aim of this work is to argue basic concepts and ideas of the Ottoman women's movement, which is different from the identical movements in Western countries, through Fatma Aliye Hanım's novel Udî (The Lute Player). Identities and professions of the mother and the daughter as antiheroines, positioned at the opposite pole of the heroine Bedia, who made her ability to play ut to become able to stand on her own legs after divorce, define the other women of the era. In this study, it was emphasized that in Fatma Aliye Hanım’s point of view Naome and Helula were non-Muslims and they had to be excluded because they played and danced in public shows. The female characters were examined through Russian philosopher and literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin’s (1895-1975) dialectic of self and other, which argues that at the time of aesthetic activity the writer empathizes with the other, then returns to his original position and reflects each character’s inner conflicts objectively.

Fatma Aliye Hanım, Ottoman feminism, women's liberation, Mikhail Bakhtin, dialectic of self and othe

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