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Investigation of Private Tutoring System in Turkey, South Korea and Japan
Tutoring and private tutoring schools are an education sector which is commonly used in most countries, especially in the countries of the Far East like South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan and Taiwan and which is called "shadow education system". Private tutoring schools are active in countries where acceptance to universities are realized by central entrance exams. The purpose of this research is to analyze the experiences of South Korea , which is successful at PISA and other exams, and of Japan, which presents a similar profile about private tutoring, on private tutoring schools. That South Korea has a widespread private tutoring system does not mean students' or system's failure, which is different from the situation in Turkey. Studies shows that South Korea's success on international exams depend on well-funded and high-quality public schools and tutoring and private tutoring schools whose most income are allocated by parents. Japan education system has largely experienced innovation after World War II. Japan allocates 12,7% of the total budget to education. Primary Education Act adopted in 1947 reveals more details on equality of opportunity in education for everyone in accordance with the essence of the constitution. Ministry of Education subsidizes for many fields such as educational improvement, science and technology, sports and culture and educational facilities, staff expenses and foundation schools and scholarship programmes. Although universities have capacity for the entire of all applicants, 10 million students attend the private tutoring schools called “Juku”. While the rate of tutoring in primary school level in that country is 16,5% in 1985, this rate increased 25,9% in 2007; in secondary school level, this rate increased from 44,5% to 53,5%. Demand for higher education has always been at upper level in our country as schooling rate at secondary education level has increased year by year and as higher education is perceived indispensable for a future with high life standards and prosperity. That current higher education institutions cannot meet the demand for higher education raise an educational phenomenon based on a heavy competitive conditions in secondary education. Thus, the demand for quality secondary education schools accepting students by examination has increased more, which has brought the competitive phenomenon seen in the transition to higher education into the primary education level. According to the results of the research, pos

Private tutoring, South Korea, Japan, cross-cultural analysis.

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